The Shaking Ground of Traditional Chronology
Series I Post 3
When, I heard that Dr. David M. Rohl had his New Chronology and named Ramesses II as the real Biblical Shishak. I panicked had he discovered my Bronze Age chronology and beat me to disclosing my identification of Shishak? No, he used another way, mainly translation of a nickname used by the ancient Egyptians (Rohl, 1995: 156—163). Nicknames in ancient Egypt wasn’t as uncommon as you might think (Tyldesley, 1995: 77). When I realized his method was very different. I relaxed and took heart. He had provided me another source identifying the same Pharaoh as Shishak.
I had used the plague in the Levant, Egypt, and Hittite dating to the 18th dynasty as one of my identifiers. Others included the similarities in the names of Jehoshaphat/Merenptah and Jehoram/Ramesses and the famine of Ahab (1Kings 18:2) era with that of the Hittite famine that Merenptah famously sent Egyptian grain to feed Hittite (Shaw: 2000: 303). This method of mine allowed only Ramesses II to be Shishak.
Traditional chronology bases its identification of Shoshenq I as Shishak on the work of Sir John Marsham, 1st Baronet 1602—1682, in ca. 1649 as Archbishop James Ussher was working on his own chronology of Biblical history. Later, Sir Isaac Newton credited John Marsham and his math in discovering who Shishak was. (Many internet sites wrongly reference Sir John Marshall as Newton’s source, but Sir John Marshall lived long after Sir Newton.) That is it, there is no archaeological evidence supporting the traditional chronology identification of Shoshenk I as Shishak.
Dr. K.A. Kitchen acknowledges that Ramesses II in his 7/8 year with his army in tow just passed Jerusalem by (Kitchen, 1985: 67—68). While, Dr. Myśliwiec writing of Shoshenq’s campaign and supposed sacking of Jerusalem as Shishak (Myśliwiec, 2000: 45). He wonders at the lack of supporting historical documentation in Shoshenq’s geographical listing of the names of towns. That he did conquer but not listing Jerusalem or any other central Judean hill city. No, kidding Dr. Karol Myśliwiec then explains, “The opinion is that the relief does not depict historical reality but rather is modeled after an original from the time of Tuthmosis III, Amenophis II, or one of the great Ramessides. Once again, propaganda prevailed over fact.”
So, hello? Again who is the historical Shishak? Ramesses, the second by that name, the Great indeed.
Kitchen, Kenneth A. Pharaoh Triumphant the Life and Times of Ramesses II, King of Egypt. Warminster, Gt. Brit: Aris, 1985. 67—68 Print.
Myśliwiec, Karol. The Twilight of Ancient Egypt; First Millennium B.C.E. Trans. David Lorton. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 2000. 45 Print.
Rohl, David M. Pharaohs and Kings; a Biblical Quest. New York: Crown, 1995. 156—163 Print. Originally published in Gt. Brit. as A Test of Time.
Shaw, Ian. ed. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford, Gt. Brit: Oxford UP, 2000. 303 Print.
Tyldesley, Joyce. Daughters of Isis; Women of Ancient Egypt. London: Penguin, 1995. 77 Print.
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